This finding is in agreement with another study (4), reporting that T1DM patients with anti-GAD positivity had a 2-fold greater risk for the development of thyroid autoimmunity than those without anti-GAD. those with positive checks versus 12.0 years JV15-2 in those with bad tests, = 0.027), period of diabetes (7.4 versus 4.3 years, = 0.031), and serum TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone) levels (4.8 versus 2.3 IU/mL, = 0.002). The presence of both anti-thyroid antibodies was associated with female sex (kids: 4/75 (5.3%), ladies: 11/69 (15.9%), chi-square = 6.44, = 0.04). Subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis (SAIT) was present in 55.5% of the patients with thyroid antibody-positivity and was positively associated with age (16.6 versus 12.0 years, = 0.001) and diabetes period (7.6 versus 4.2 years, = 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed the development of anti-thyroid antibodies was expected by: 1) the presence of anti-GAD (odds percentage (OR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09C1.92), 2) the presence of a second anti-thyroid antibody (OR 134.4, 95% CI 7.7C2350.3), and 3) older age (OR 22.9, 95% CI 1.13C463.2). Conclusions Thyroid autoimmunity was associated with female gender, increasing age, long diabetes period, the persistence of anti-GAD, and with TSH elevation, indicating subclinical hypothyroidism. test was performed for the assessment of means, and the chi-square test was used to compare percentages among different subgroups of individuals. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independency and strength of associations and to describe a predictive model. Results Altogether 144 children and adolescents with T1DM (males/females: p-Coumaric acid 75/69) were included in the present study, having a mean p-Coumaric acid SD age of 12.35 4.64 years (range 2.00C20.4), a mean SD age at analysis of diabetes of 7.74 3.6 years (range 0.20C13.4), and a mean SD period of diabetes of 4.66 3.99 years (range 0.60C16.00). The mean SD HbA1c levels during the study period were 8.18% 1.68% (range 5.6%C14.4%), and the mean BMI of the individuals was 20.60 3.75 kg/m2 (range 13.6C35.09). Among our individuals, 66 (53.2%) were positive for anti-GAD antibodies and 26/144 (18.0%) for anti-thyroid antibodies; 25 of the 144 individuals (17.4%) were positive for anti-TPO and 16/144 (11.1%) for anti-Tg; 10 of the individuals (6.9%) were positive only for anti-TPO, and 2 of 144 (1.3%) were positive only for anti-Tg. A total of 15 (10.4%) individuals were positive for both anti-TPO and anti-Tg. In 4 of 27 individuals (14.8%) checks for anti-thyroid antibodies were positive at the time of analysis of T1DM. Checks for anti-TPO antibodies became positive an average of 3.4 3.5 (range 0C11) years after the diagnosis p-Coumaric acid of T1DM. Checks for anti-Tg p-Coumaric acid antibodies became positive 6.6 3.5 years (range 1C13.0) after the analysis of T1DM. Checks for both anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies became positive 5.2 2.9 years (range 0.4C10.0) after the analysis of T1DM. Factors contributing to the manifestation of thyroid autoimmunity The prevalence of anti-thyroid antibodies was positively associated with diabetes duration (Table I) and age (Table II), with the highest prevalence rates observed in individuals having a diabetes duration of 6 years (= 0.014) or an age of 15 years. Table I. Prevalence of positive autoantibodies in children with T1DM relating to diabetes duration. = 65= 32= 46Anti-GAD antibodies:?Anti-GAD(+)61.5%45.8%47.5%NSAnti-thyroid antibodies:?Anti-TPO(+)9.2%15.6%30.4%0.014?Anti-Tg(+)3.1%3.1%28.3%0.001?Anti-TPO(+) and anti-Tg(+)3.0%3.1%26.0%0.001 Open in a separate window Table II. Prevalence of positive autoantibodies in children with T1DM relating to current age. = 34= 62= 39= 0.027 and = 0.031 respectively). They also had elevated serum TSH concentrations (4.8 1.6 IU/L) but normal serum T4 levels (8.8 1.1 mcg/dl), consistent with subclinical hypothyroidism. In contrast, serum TSH concentrations were lower (3.8 1.9 IU/L) in the group with only one of two positive tests. Females predominated in the group with double thyroid antibody positivity (kids 4/75 (5.3%), ladies 11/69 (15.9%), chi-square = 6.44, = 0.04). Table IV. Characteristics of children with T1DM according to the presence or the absence of anti-thyroid antibodies. = 117= 12= 15Current age (years)12.0 4.811.9 5.616.6 4.70.027Age at diabetes analysis (years)7.8 3.88.2 3.98.9 4.7NSMales (= 75)62 (82.6%)9.