Most of the regions on their migration route except for Mongolia are endemic of cysticercosis (Chung et al

Most of the regions on their migration route except for Mongolia are endemic of cysticercosis (Chung et al., 2005; Ikejima et al., 2005; Somers et al., 2006). Tolrestat economic situation of NK has become worse, and most of the residents are facing difficulties of food supply. The difficulties of food supply mean massive starvations and eventually induce many diseases, which conform a vicious cycle of poverty and disease. In the past, there was no difference in the infection status of helminthiases between South and North Korea (Kobayashi, 1928; Brooke et al., 1956). In recent 30 years, however, the situation of parasitic helminthiases has been changed greatly between South and North. Successful developments of economy and intensive control activities have successfully eliminated intestinal helminthiases in SK (Lee, 2005). Especially soil-transmitted helminths disappeared, but some foodborne parasites, zoonotic parasites, and malaria are still prevalent in SK (Korea Association of Health Promotion, 2004; Hong et al., 2006). At present, ELISA is a standard diagnostic method for tissue-parasitic helminthiases in Korea, most of which are not detected by fecal examination (Cho et al., 1981; Yang et al., 1983; Tolrestat Kim et al., 1984; Cho et al., 1986; Hong, 1988). The ELISA detects specific serum IgG antibodies to 4 tissue-invading helminths; metacestode, and sparganum (plerocercoid of and metacestode and crude saline extract of spargana. The antigens were prepared in the ELISA laboratory of the Institute of Endemic Diseases, Seoul National University College of Medicine. Negative control sera, which showed no reaction to any of the 4 antigens, were collected from healthy students. Positive control sera were selected from single antibody positive patients who were diagnosed by routine ELISA. To determine IgG antibodies to antigens of metacestode and sparganum in serum, ELISA was performed according to the standard method in our laboratory in 2005 (Lee et al., 2003). Each serum was tested twice and mean of the 2 2 absorbances were used. The antigens Tolrestat were diluted in carbonate buffer (pH 9.6) at 0.5, 0.5, 1.1, and 0.7 g/100 l protein concentration, respectively, and coated in wells of polystyrene microtitration plates (Costar, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) at 4 overnight. After washing, 1: 25 and 1: 100 diluted sera in phosphate buffered saline/0.05% Tween 20 (PBS/T, pH 7.4) were incubated for 2 hr at 37, respectively. After washing, SLC2A2 1: 24,000 diluted peroxidase-conjugated anti-human IgG (light and heavy-chain specific, Cappel, Aurora, Ohio, USA) in PBS/T was incubated for 2 Tolrestat hr at 37. After washing and taking advantage of tetramethylbenzidine (TMB, Ken-En-Tec Diagnostics, Taastrup, Denmark) reaction, absorbance was read at 450 nm using an ELISA reader (Molecular Devices Co, Tolrestat Sunnyvale, California, USA). Absorbance values of positive specific antibodies to metacestode, and sparganum were over 0.250, 0.280, 0.290, and 0.240, respectively. RESULTS The ELISA of the 137 NK residents revealed positive rates of 19.7%, 8%, and 8% for antigens of metacestode, and sparganum, respectively, but none were positive for the antigen of metacestode and 5 to sparganum. Most of the duplicate positive residents were in their age of 60s. The serology positive rates increased by age up to their 50s, but decreased in the 60s and 70s. Males were more positive than females, total 38.2% vs. 20.3%, and also in individual helminthiases. The NK refugees subjected in the present study were from 20s to 40s. They were positive to and metacestode by 3% and 10.5%, respectively (Table 1). There were no positive refugee subjects to and sparganum..