S.Q. communication, and promoted mitophagy in vitro. In mice, fenpropathrin was administered AT101 acetic acid into the striatum via stereotaxic (ST) injections. ST-injected mice exhibited poor locomotor function at 24 weeks after the first ST injection and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells and level of TH protein in the substantia nigra pars compacta were significantly decreased, as compared to these parameters in vehicle-treated mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that exposure to fenpropathrin induces a loss of dopaminergic neurons and partially mimics the pathologic features of Parkinsons disease. These findings suggest that fenpropathrin may induce neuronal degeneration via dysregulation of mitochondrial function and the mitochondrial quality control system. tests for comparisons between two groups and one-way analyses of variance followed by Bonferroni post hoc tests AT101 acetic acid for multiple comparisons. All data are expressed as the mean??standard error of the mean, and the statistical significance level was considered as em p /em ? ?0.05. Each analyzed dataset was derived from at least three independent experiments. Supplementary information AT101 acetic acid Supplementary Information(20K, docx) Supplementary Figure 1(7.2M, tif) Supplementary Figure 2(2.9M, tif) Supplementary Figure 3(1.5M, tif) Supplementary Figure 4(1.1M, tif) Supplementary Figure 5(2.0M, tif) Supplementary Figure 6(22M, tif) Supplementary Figure 7(6.0M, tif) Acknowledgements This work was funded by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China AT101 acetic acid (U1603281, and 81870991), and the key innovational technology project of Guangzhou (2018-1202-SF-0019). All procedures were approved by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Southern Medical University. Author contributions S.Q. designed the research. Z.J. and Y.W. performed the experiments. S.Q. and Z.J. analyzed the data. S.Q. and Z.J. wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Footnotes Edited by Richard Killick Mouse monoclonal to ERK3 Publishers note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. AT101 acetic acid Supplementary information The online version of this article (10.1038/s41420-020-00313-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users..